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Zirconia

Zirconia (ZrO2) is the toughest of all monolithic advanced ceramics and has excellent room temperature mechanical properties.

Zircalon weld location pinsZirconia (or zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) is characterised by high impact resistance and very high strength and toughness giving it excellent wear resistance. In addition it is chemically stable resulting in excellent corrosion resistance.

Zirconia is typically used in applications in the metal forming industry as weld location pins for resistance welding of captive nuts on sheet metal.

ISN offers three grades of zirconia: Zircalon 5, Zircalon 10 and Zircalon 20. The properties of these materials are outlined below.

Zircalon 5

Zircalon 5 is an yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and has very good strength and toughness. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 5.

Physical property data for Zircalon 5

Property Value Units
Composition YSZ -
Density 6.13 g/cc
Porosity 0 %
3 point Modulus of Rupture 20°C
(Specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm)
1000 MPa
Weibull Modulus 15 -
Compressive Strength >2000 MPa
Young's Modulus of Elasticity 205 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.30 -
Hardness (HRA) 91 -
Hardness (Vickers Hv50) 13.24 (1350) GPa (Kg/mm2)
Fracture Toughness K1C 8.0 MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (0-1200°C) 10.0X10-6 K-1
Thermal Conductivity 2.0 W/(mK)
Thermal Shock Resistance 250 ΔT°C quenched in cold water
Maximum Use Temperature 1000 °C
RT Electrical Resistivity 1011 ohm cm

Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.

Download the Zircalon 5 Property Data Sheet PDF (0.19 Mb).

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Zircalon 10

Zircalon 10 is an yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and has higher strength and toughness than Zircalon 5. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 10.

Physical property data for Zircalon 10

Property Value Units
Composition YSZ -
Density 6.05 g/cc
Porosity 0 %
3 point Modulus of Rupture 20°C
(Specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm)
1200 MPa
Weibull Modulus 15 -
Compressive Strength >2000 MPa
Young's Modulus of Elasticity 205 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.30 -
Hardness (HRA) 91 -
Hardness (Vickers Hv50) 13.24 (1350) GPa (Kg/mm2)
Fracture Toughness K1C 10.0 MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (0-1200°C) 10.0X10-6 K-1
Thermal Conductivity 2.0 W/m/K
Thermal Shock Resistance 250 ΔT°C quenched in cold water
Maximum Use Temperature 1000 °C
RT Electrical Resistivity 1011 ohm cm

Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.

Download the Zircalon 10 Property Data Sheet PDF (0.19 Mb).

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Zircalon 20

Zircalon 20 is a magnesia stabilised zirconia (MSZ) and has better thermal shock resistance than either Zircalon 5 or Zircalon 10. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 20.

Physical property data for Zircalon 20

Property Value Units
Composition MSZ -
Density 5.7 g/cc
Porosity 0 %
3 point Modulus of Rupture 20°C
(Specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm)
500 MPa
Weibull Modulus 15 -
Compressive Strength >1600 MPa
Young's Modulus of Elasticity 210 GPa
Poisson's Ratio 0.30 -
Hardness (HRA) 90 -
Hardness (Vickers Hv50) 11.77 (1200) GPa (Kg/mm2)
Fracture Toughness K1C 7.0 MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (0-1200°C) 11.0X10-6 K-1
Thermal Conductivity 2.5 W/m/K
Thermal Shock Resistance 350 ΔT°C quenched in cold water
Maximum Use Temperature 1000 °C
RT Electrical Resistivity 1011 ohm cm

Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.

Download the Zircalon 20 Property Data Sheet PDF (0.09 Mb).

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Zircalon Corrosion Behaviour

In addition to this outstanding property data, Zircalon also has excellent resistance to corrosion, often required for applications in the chemical and process industries.

The table below show the corrosion resistant behaviour of Zircalon in various acids and alkalis.

Zircalon corrosion behaviour in acids and alkalis.

Acid/Alkali Conc. % Temp. Exposure time / hrs Reaction
Acetic Acid 100 Boiling 100 None
Benzoic Acid 100 Boiling 100 None
Formic Acid 100 Boiling 100 None
Hydrochloric Acid 33 Boiling 100 Weak
Hydrofluric Acid 100 Boiling 100 Strong
Nitric Acid 69 Boiling 100 Weak
Phosphoric Acid 100 Boiling 100 Weak
Sulphuric Acid 98 Boiling 100 Weak
Ammonium Chloride 98 Boiling 100 None
Potassium Chloride 100 Boiling 100 None
Sodium Chloride 100 Boiling 100 None
Sodium hydroxide 50 Boiling 100 None

Typical corrosion data obtained under test conditions. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therfore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.

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The successful integration of advanced technical ceramics into engineering systems requires close collaboration between you, the end-user, and ourselves, the material suppliers. Please contact our Technical Department to discuss your requirments in detail and assist in exploiting the significant advantages which our advanced ceramics offer.

In addition, see our resources section for guides on designing with ceramics and more property data comparing Zircalon with other engineering ceramics. For a comparison of the physical properties of all our materials see our Material Properties Datasheet.