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ZIRCONIA
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Zirconium dioxide, more commonly known as zirconia (ZrO₂), is the toughest of the technical ceramics. Conventional zirconia ceramics are often limited in their capabilities by poor thermal performance, despite their high strength and practically unmatched hardness characteristics. Complex zirconia and stabilising additive combinations offer enhanced thermal stability, enabling manufacturers to exploit the outstanding mechanical characteristics of zirconia in more demanding high temperature environments.

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International Syalons is a specialist supplier of advanced engineering materials for a wide range of market segments. We offer a range of oxide and non-oxide ceramics for extremely challenging application areas. Among our core line is a choice of magnesia- and yttria-stabilised zirconia grades which have a negligible propensity for phase transitioning at high operating temperatures. We can subsequently supply hard-wearing zirconia ceramics for temperature-critical applications. Key performance indicators of our zirconia range include:

- Unprecedented fracture toughness (15 MPa m½)
- High modulus of rupture (1200 MPa)
- Excellent compressive strength (1600 MPa)
- Exceptional hardness (91 HRA)

Preventing zirconia from undergoing temperature-induced phase transitions is vital to success in high-temperature applications. By carefully controlling the alloying composition with stabilising additives, we can impart enhanced thermodynamic properties that maximise the performance and lifetime of hard-wearing parts.

Browse a selection of our zirconia ceramic grades below to find out more about their applicability and properties.

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Zircalon 5

Zircalon 5 is an yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and has very good strength and toughness. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 5.

Zircalon 5 - Physical Property Data

PROPERTY
VALUE
UNITS
Composition
YSZ
-
Density
6.13
g/cc
Porosity
0
%
3-point MOR at 20°C ⁺
1000
MPa
Weibull Modulus
15
-
Compressive Strength
>2000
MPa
Young's Modulus
205
GPa
Poisson's Ratio
0.30
-
Hardness (HRA)
91
-
Hardness (Vickers Hv50)
13.24 (1350)
GPa (Kg/mm²)
Fracture Toughness (K₁c)
8.0
MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient ⁺⁺
10x10⁻⁶
K⁻¹
Thermal Conductivity
2.0
W/(mK)
Thermal Shock Resistance
250
ΔT°C ⁺⁺⁺
Maximum Use Temperature
1000
°C
Electrical Resistivity
10¹¹
Ω cm
⁺ Modulus of rupture specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm
⁺⁺ Thermal expansion coefficient temperature range: 0-1200°C
⁺⁺⁺ Quenched into cold water
Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.
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Zircalon 10

Zircalon 10 is an yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and has higher strength and toughness than Zircalon 5. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 10.

Zircalon 10 - Physical Property Data

PROPERTY
VALUE
UNITS
Composition
YSZ
-
Density
6.05
g/cc
Porosity
0
%
3-point MOR at 20°C ⁺
1200
MPa
Weibull Modulus
15
-
Compressive Strength
>2000
MPa
Young's Modulus
205
GPa
Poisson's Ratio
0.30
-
Hardness (HRA)
91
-
Hardness (Vickers Hv50)
13.24 (1350)
GPa (Kg/mm²)
Fracture Toughness (K₁c)
10.0
MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient ⁺⁺
10x10⁻⁶
K⁻¹
Thermal Conductivity
2.0
W/(mK)
Thermal Shock Resistance
250
ΔT°C ⁺⁺⁺
Maximum Use Temperature
1000
°C
Electrical Resistivity
10¹¹
Ω cm
⁺ Modulus of rupture specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm
⁺⁺ Thermal expansion coefficient temperature range: 0-1200°C
⁺⁺⁺ Quenched into cold water
Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.
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Zircalon 20

Zircalon 20 is a magnesia stabilised zirconia (MSZ) and has better thermal shock resistance than either Zircalon 5 or Zircalon 10. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 20.

Zircalon 20 - Physical Property Data

PROPERTY
VALUE
UNITS
Composition
YSZ
-
Density
6.05
g/cc
Porosity
0
%
3-point MOR at 20°C ⁺
1200
MPa
Weibull Modulus
15
-
Compressive Strength
>2000
MPa
Young's Modulus
205
GPa
Poisson's Ratio
0.30
-
Hardness (HRA)
91
-
Hardness (Vickers Hv50)
13.24 (1350)
GPa (Kg/mm²)
Fracture Toughness (K₁c)
10.0
MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient ⁺⁺
10x10⁻⁶
K⁻¹
Thermal Conductivity
2.0
W/(mK)
Thermal Shock Resistance
250
ΔT°C ⁺⁺⁺
Maximum Use Temperature
1000
°C
Electrical Resistivity
10¹¹
Ω cm
⁺ Modulus of rupture specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm
⁺⁺ Thermal expansion coefficient temperature range: 0-1200°C
⁺⁺⁺ Quenched into cold water
Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.
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Zircalon 30

Zircalon 30 is a co-stabilised zirconia-based ceramic with an alumina (Al₂O₃) matrix, which is reinforced by self-grown alumina-based platelets. Zircalon 30 has a better fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance than Zircalon 10, whilst still offering excellent mechanical strength and hardness properties. The table below lists typical mechanical, thermal and electrical property data for Zircalon 30.

Zircalon 30 - Physical Property Data

PROPERTY
VALUE
UNITS
Composition
ZrO₂/Al₂O₃
-
Density
>5.62
g/cc
Porosity
0
%
3-point MOR at 20°C ⁺
1000
MPa
Weibull Modulus
14
-
Compressive Strength
>2000
MPa
Young's Modulus
-
GPa
Poisson's Ratio
0.295
-
Hardness (HRA)
89
-
Hardness (Vickers Hv50)
13.24 (1350)
GPa (Kg/mm²)
Fracture Toughness (K₁c)
10.0
MPa m½
Thermal Expansion Coefficient ⁺⁺
10x10⁻⁶
K⁻¹
Thermal Conductivity
2.0
W/(mK)
Thermal Shock Resistance
250
ΔT°C ⁺⁺⁺
Maximum Use Temperature
1000
°C
Electrical Resistivity
10¹¹
Ω cm
⁺ Modulus of rupture specimen 3 × 3 × 50mm, span 19.05mm
⁺⁺ Thermal expansion coefficient temperature range: 0-1200°C
⁺⁺⁺ Quenched into cold water
Typical physical property data obtained under test conditions. All properties have been measured by independent testing authorities. The values given only apply to the test bodies on which they were determined, and therefore can only be recommended values. See our disclaimer.
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In addition to this outstanding property data, Zircalon also has excellent resistance to corrosion, often required for applications in the chemical and process industries.

The table below show the corrosion resistant behaviour of Zircalon in various acids and alkalis.

Zircalon - Corrosion Behaviour in Acids and Alkalis

ACID/ALKALI
CONC. %
TEMP
EXPOSURE TIME (HRS)
REACTION
Acetic acid
100
Boiling
100
None
Benzoic acid
100
Boiling
100
None
Formic acid
100
Boiling
100
None
Hydrochloric acid
33
Boiling
100
Weak
Hydrofluoric acid
100
Boiling
100
Strong
Nitric acid
69
Boiling
100
Weak
Phosphoric acid
100
Boiling
100
Weak
Sulphuric acid
98
Boiling
100
Weak
Ammonium chloride
98
Boiling
100
None
Potassium chloride
100
Boiling
100
None
Sodium chloride
100
Boiling
100
None
Sodium hydroxide
50
Boiling
100
None
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The successful integration of advanced technical ceramics into engineering systems requires close collaboration between you, the end-user, and ourselves, the material manufacturer. Please call +44(0)191 2951010 or email for an initial consultation with our technical sales team, or send us a Request for Quote.

In addition, see our resources section for guides on designing with ceramics and more property data comparing zirconia with other engineering ceramics.